近日，澳门皇冠由国家公派澳大利亚五伦贡大学攻读英语文学博士学位的熊霄老师应邀出席在澳大利亚昆士兰大学（University of Queensland）举办的2018国际澳大利亚研究学会（the International Australian Studies Association or InASA）双年会。
Several days ago, Mr Xiao Xiong, a teacher in English literature at the School of Foreign Languages of Central China Normal University (CCNU), was invited to attend the 2018 InASA Biennial Conference at the University of Queensland (UQ), Australia and presented a paper. Mr Xiong is currently a PhD candidate in English literature at the University of Wollongong (UOW), Australia.
熊老师演讲的题目是“Haunting as Trauma in Her Father’s Daughter”，这是熊老师对haunting研究的一部分。
The paper Mr Xiong presented was “Haunting as Trauma in Her Father’s Daughter”, a part of his research in haunting.
Her Father’s Daughter是一部回忆录，作者是方佳（Alice Pung），其祖父母从我国广东潮汕地区迁徙到柬埔寨，后因柬埔寨20世纪60-70年代的政治动荡移居澳大利亚。方佳出生在澳大利亚。这部回忆录主要讲述了方佳的父亲因经历过精神和身体的创伤而对他的孩子们过度保护；而随着年龄的增长，方佳逐渐了解父亲与众不同的言行背后的原因，并重述父亲对过去那段创伤经历的讲述。
Her Father’s Daughter is a memoir by Alice Pung, a writer born in Australia with Chinese parents who migrated to Australia from Cambodia. The reason for the Pung family’s migration was the political turmoil in 1960s-1970s Cambodia. This memoir is mainly about Alice’s father’s overprotection of his children due to his traumatic experience in the past and Alice’s re-narration of her father’s experience.
熊老师先介绍了haunting的相关理论：haunting不仅指鬼魂与幽灵，更指让人感到恐惧与不安的物体或现象。学者Avery Gordon认为haunting是被压抑的、没有了结的社会暴力在当下重现(译自Gordon 2008, vxi)。创伤是haunting的一种。发生在过去的社会暴力和随之而生的恐惧与不安一直停留在受害者或目击者的记忆里。因为那段记忆过于强烈或悲惨，所以会在受害者或目击者的脑海里不由自主地无规律地重复，在他们不经意的时候从未知的黑暗里跳出来，让他们在当下感到恐惧与不安，好像被鬼魂或幽灵附体，好像过去与现实共存，并不断打破我们以为的现世宁静的表象。
Mr Xiong firstly introduced some theories related to haunting: it refers to not only ghost but also something causing fear or uncanny feelings. Avery Gordon (2008) claims that haunting is “an animated state in which a repressed or unresolved social violence is making itself known” (p. vxi). Trauma, a king of haunting, means that fear and uncanniness caused by social violence in the past dwell in the memory of the victims and witnesses. The trauma may be too strong so that the traumatic scene may keep replaying itself in their mind or jump out from an unknown dark place to unsettle and frighten them as if they were possessed by ghost. Remembering trauma is reliving trauma. The traumatic past invades the present and unsettles the seemingly quiet life.
熊老师认为方佳的父亲在移居澳大利亚后对孩子们的过度保护是创伤后遗症的体现，与PTSD （Post-traumatic Stress Disorder）类似，是跨国界、跨文化的迁徙造成的被压抑、被沉默的失语的但又不断困扰自己的创伤。熊老师随后分析方佳是如何重述父亲对那段记忆的讲述， 特别是如何把那段记忆重述给英语世界的读者。熊老师着重分析了这部回忆录中提到的dismemory：并非简单的遗忘，而是她父亲想忘记那段悲惨的经历却又无法忘记，以至体现在日常对孩子们无意识地过度保护中。
Mr Xiong argues that Alice’s father’s overprotection of his children is the sequela of the trauma, similar to PTSD. Transnational and transcultural migration causes repressed memory and forced aphasia but the trauma still keeps haunting him. Mr Xiong also analyses how Alice re-narrates her father’s narration of the traumatic past, especially to an Anglophone audience. Mr Xiong emphasizes “dismemory” in the memoir: it is simply about forgetting; it means that her father tries to forget the traumatic past but is not able to so that the repressed memory may often unconsciously jump out to make him overprotect his children.
Mr Xiong also mentions that Alice’s relatives in Cambodia who have similar traumatic experiences are not haunted by them, instead, they look forward to the future and eye on development. Mr Xiong argues that the reason is that Alice’s father has to rely on his memory of the past to consolidate his identity but the past was too traumatic as if it were a black hole which disjoins the natural flow of time. However, Alice’s relatives in Cambodia do not need the memory of the past to consolidate their identity so that they may gradually reconcile with the past and move on.
Mr Xiong’s conclusion is that everyone may have a traumatic past but we’d better not indulge in the melancholia or sadness over the past. We are supposed to peacefully and positively accept the past and try to reconcile with the unresolved trauma. We are also supposed to be aware that trauma is always part of time and memory so that we may accept the fact that trauma always travels from the past to the present. In this way, we may look forward to the future with a positive attitude.
国际澳大利亚研究会网站（the website of the InASA）：http://inasa.org/